Pretoria Image: Image from page 458 of “Annals of the South African Museum = Annale van die Suid-Afrikaanse Museum” (1898)

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Identifier: annalso11011220032004sout
Title: Annals of the South African Museum = Annale van die Suid-Afrikaanse Museum
Year: 1898 (1890s)
Authors: South African Museum
Subjects: Natural history
Publisher: Cape Town : The Museum
Contributing Library: Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Biodiversity Heritage Library

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Text Appearing Before Image:
Figure 6 Punched solid gold bead from Mapungubwe, showing four indentations from the sharp edges of a tapered, square-sided punch (magnification 12 x). FABRICA TION TECHNOLOGY OF SOUTHERN AFRICAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL GOLD 87

Text Appearing After Image:
Figure 7 Grooved solid gold bead from Mapungubwe, showing five indentations impressed into the outer margin (magnification 14 X). Bead sizes ranged between approximately 2 mm and 5 mm in external diameter, withan internal diameter ranging from 1 mm to 3 mm. Most of the gold beads analysed anddescribed in the current study could be categorised into two groups distinguished by themeans of manufacture; punched or wrapped. Punched beads were sub-spherical itemswith single holes and no visible join. The grain sizes varied from relatively large(ASTM 4) to very fine (ASTM 10), indicating different degrees of cold work before thefinal anneal. They were indeed punched, and not cast with holes as proposed by Oddy(1984) and earlier investigators (Fouche 1937). There were traces of four evenly spacedindentations on the edge of the internal diameters on both the flattened end surfaces ofmost of these beads (Fig. 6), although in some specimens these indentations had all butdisappeared through wear.

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