Pretoria Image: 07759-Oradea:Catedrala Romano-Catolic? Sf. Ladislau – St Ladislaus Catholic Cathedral – La cathedrale catholique St Ladislas 1720-41 / Palatul Prim?riei – City Hall Palace – Le Palais de la Mairie (1902-1903)

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Union Buildings
Image by Gogulescu Silviu
Este a doua cea mai veche biseric? catolic? existent? în Oradea (dup? Sf Brigitta din 1692 devenit? azi ortodox?). Acest fapt are drept cauz?, cei 32 de ani de st?pânire otoman? asupra ora?ului, când vechile biserici au fost distruse. Dup? 1692, Imperiul Habsburgic cucere?te ora?ul, ce devenise sub otomani, eyaletul (pa?alîcul) cu numele Varat. Partizani ai catolicismului ?i contrareformei, habsurgi vor începe destul de rapid o politica de construc?ie de biserici catolice în zon?, printre primele dintre acestea fiind Catedrala Sf Ladislau ridicat? între 1720 ?i 1741. Ca o m?rturie a vechimii sale st? ?i cel mai vechi altar catolic existent în ora?, ridicat în 1730.
P?n? în 1779, când a fost ridicat? Bazilica Romano Catolic?, a îndeplinit ?i func?ia de catedral?. Ini?ial cuprindea doar corpul ?i absida vestic?, ulterior s-a încercat sub episcopul Csáky Miklós ridicarea unui turn, în 1738. Turnul actual dateaz? îns? din 1800.
Are o pozi?ie privilegiat? în mijlocul Pie?ei Unirii ( fost? Sf Ladislau). Pictura interioar? executata de Freiederich Silcher reprezint? scene din viata regelui maghiar Ladislau I (László), sanctificat de biserica catolic? ulterior.
A fost conceput? în spiritul baroc al timpului, îns? nu s-au pastrat date despre arhitec?ii s?i. Stilul baroc este unul destul de auster, u?or provincial, îns? edificiul este bine propor?ionat chiar dac? în timp, în?l?imea acoperi?ului s-a diminuat u?or.
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?It is the second oldest Catholic church in Oradea (after St. Brigitta in 1692, nowadays Orthodox). This is due to the 32 years of Ottoman rule over the city, when the old churches were destroyed. After 1692, the Habsburg Empire conquered the city, which had become under Ottomans, the eyalet (the pashalik) named Varat. Partisans of Catholicism and Counter-Reform, Habsburgs will begin a policy of building Catholic churches in the area quite quickly, amongst which the first of them was St. Ladislau Cathedral built between 1720 and 1741. As a testimony of its age stands the oldest Catholic altar in the city, built in 1730.
Until 1779, when the Roman Catholic Basilica was built, it also served as a cathedral. Initially it included only the body and the western apse, and later it was attempted to raise a tower under Bishop Csáky Miklós in 1738. The current tower dates back to 1800.
It has a privileged position in the middle of the Union Square (formerly Sf Ladislaus). The interior painting by Freiederich Silcher represents scenes from the life of the Hungarian king Ladislaus I (László), sanctified by the later Catholic Church. It was conceived in the baroque spirit of time, but no data was kept about its architects. The baroque style is quite austere, slightly provincial, but the edifice is well proportioned even though the roof’s height has slightly diminished over time.
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?C’est la deuxième plus ancienne église catholique à Oradea (après St. Brigitte en 1692, aujourd’hui orthodoxe). Cela est dû aux 32 années d’occupation ottomane sur la ville, lorsque les vieilles églises furent détruites. Après 1692, l’empire des Habsbourg a conquis la ville, qui était devenue sous les Ottomans, le eyalet (le pashalik) nommé Varat. Partisans du catholicisme et de la Contreréforme, les autrichiens vont commencer assez rapidement une politique de construction d’ églises catholiques dans toute la région, et parmi les première qui furent ?bâties fut Saint Ladislas entre 1720 et 1741. En tant que témoignage de son ancienneté dedans se trouve le plus ancien autel catholique existant dans la ville, construit en 1730.
Jusqu’en 1779, date à laquelle l’actuelle basilique catholique fut construite, elle a également servi de cathédrale. Dans un premier temps elle avait seulement le corps actuel et l’abside ouest; sous l’évêque Csáky Miklós fut une tentative d’ ériger une tour, en 1738. La tour actuelle date de 1800, cependant.
?l’Eglise jouit d’une position privilégiée au milieu de la Place de L’Union (anciennement Sf Ladislas). La peinture intérieure exécutée par Freiederich Silcher représentent des scènes de la vie du roi hongrois Ladislas I-er (László), canonisé par l’Eglise catholique.
L’édifice fut conçu dans l’esprit baroque du temps, mais aucune donnée n’a été conservée sur ses architectes. Le style baroque est assez austère, légèrement provincial, mais l’édifice est bien proportionné même si la hauteur du toit a légèrement diminué avec le temps.

Cl?direa impozant? a Prim?riei a fost construit? pe amplasamentul fostului Palat Baroc Episcopal Romano-Catolic. Acesta fusese ridicat de c?tre episcopul Csáky Miklós în 1742, îns? reprezenta o cladire modest?, pe un singur nivel. Înc? din 1895 se decide demolarea lui ?i demareaz? un concurs pentru proiectarea vitorului Palat al Prim?riei. Concursul este câ?tigat "ex-aequo" de 3 arhitec?i între care ?i Rimanóczy Kálmán jr., îns? numai acesta din urm? primeste îns?rcinarea proiect?rii viitorului palat, cu recomandarea de a ?ine cont ?i de celelalte 2 proiecte câ?tig?toare. Tot el ob?ine permisiunea de a fi ?i constructorul cl?dirii (unii istorici îl includ ?i pe Sztarill Ferenc). Lucr?rile de construc?ie dureaz? ceva mai mult de un an (1902-1903), iar construc?ia este inaugurat? un an mai târziu (1904).
Particularit??ile amplasamentului ?i a vechii propriet??i au conturat ?i solu?ia arhitectural?, cu un corp principal spre Pia?a Unirii, ?i un corp secundar pe malul Cri?ului, care îns? prezint? o dominant? vertical?, turnul cu ceas, înalt de circa 50 metri. Chiar corpul cerntral prezint? o u?oar? asimetrie, în sensul c?, fa?? de axul de simetrie reprezentat de corpul central supraînâl?at, pe o latur? ( spre Cri?), apare o travee în plus, aspect evident doar la o privire mai atent?.
Corpul central prezint? în zona rezalitului central supraîn?l?at, sub acoperi?, o sal? mare bogat decorat?, sala de festivit??i. Compus în stil eclectic în manier? neorenascentist?, ca ?i vechile palate ale Rena?terii Italiene, parterului i se acorda o aten?ie redus?, etajul înt?î fiind tratat în schimb în manier? monumental? ("piano nobile") cu un ordin colosal ce une?te în fapt etajele unu ?i doi.
Turnul cu ceas, a fost în trecut ?i turn de observa?ie al incendiilor, pentru pompierul de serviciu. Ironia soartei a f?cut ca tocmai acest turn (ca ?i întregul acoperi?) sa ard? în toamna lui 1944 în timpul luptelor celui de-al doilea r?zboi mondial, fiind necesar? refacerea complet? dup? razboi. Turnul este vizitabil azi pentru turi?ti, ?i ofer? una dintre cele mai interesante panorame asupra ora?ului.

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?The impressive building of the City Hall was built on the site of the former Roman Catholic Baroque Episcopal Palace. It had been erected by Bishop Csáky Miklós in 1742, but it was a modest building on a single level. As early as 1895, it was decided to demolish it and launch a contest for the design of the City Hall’s Palace. The competition was won"ex-aequo" by 3 architects, including Rimanóczy Kálmán jr., but only the latter was commissioned to design the future palace, with the recommendation to take into account the other 2 winning projects. He also got the permission to be the builder of the building (some historians also include Sztarill Ferenc). The construction works lasted more than a year (1902-1903), and the construction was inaugurated one year later (1904).
The particularities of the site and the old property have also shaped the architectural solution, with a main body towards Union Square, and a secondary body on the shores of Cri? River, but with a vertical dominant, the clock tower, about 50 meters high. Even the cerntral body has a slight asymmetry in the sense that, in relation to the axis of symmetry represented by the superordinated central body, an extra bay appears on one side (towards Cri?), obviously only at a closer look.
The central body features in the area of ??the central raised body, under the roof, a richly decorated large hall, the festive hall. Composed in eclectic style in the neo-Renaissance manner, as well as the old palaces of the Italian Renaissance, the ground floor was given a small attention, the first floor being treated instead in a monumental manner ("piano noble") with a colossal order that unites the second and third floors.
The clock tower was also a fire observation tower for the fire brigade, in the past. The irony of fate made this tower (as well as the entire roof) burn in the autumn of 1944 during World War II battles, requiring complete reconstruction after the war. The tower is accessible today for tourists, and offers one of the most interesting panoramas of the city.
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?L’impressionnant bâtiment de la mairie a été construit sur le site de l’ancien palais épiscopal baroque catholique. Il a été érigé par l’évêque Csáky Miklós en 1742, mais c’était un bâtiment modeste sur un seul niveau. Dès 1895, il fut décidé de le démolir et de lancer un concours pour la conception du Palais de la Mairie. Le concours fut gagné « ex-aequo » par 3 architectes parmi eux Rimanóczy Kálmán jr., mais seulement celui-ci reçut le projet avec la recommandation de prendre en compte les deux autres projets gagnants. Il obtint également la permission d’être le constructeur du bâtiment (certains historiens incluent également Sztarill Ferenc). Les travaux de construction ont duré plus d’un an (1902-1903) et la construction fut inaugurée un an plus tard (1904).
Les particularités de l’ancien site ont généré la solution architecturale actuelle avec un corps principal sur le côté de la Place de l’Union, et un second corps, secondaire, sur le bord de la rivière, mais qui possède une verticale dominante la tour de l’horloge haute de 50 mètres. Même le corps cerntral a une légère asymétrie dans le sens où, par rapport à l’axe de symétrie représentée par le corps central surélevé, un côté (le long du Cri?) possède une baie de plus (aspect notable seulement après une attentive observation).
Le corps central présente dans sa zone centrale surélevée, sous le toit, une grande salle richement décorée, la salle des festivités. Le palais fut conçu dans un style éclectique dans la manière néo-Renaissance. Comme pouir les anciens palais de la Renaissance italienne, le rez-de-chaussée est sobre, mais le premier niveau est traité en échange dans une manière monumentale ( « piano noble ») avec un ordre colossal de connexion entre les niveaux deux et trois.
La tour de l’horloge était également une tour d’observation des incendies pour les pompiers dans le passé. L’ironie du destin a fait brûler précisément cette tour (comme tout le toit) pendant l’automne de 1944 lors des combats de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, ce qui nécessita une reconstruction complète après la guerre. La tour est accessible aujourd’hui pour les touristes, et offre l’un des panoramas les plus intéressants de la ville.

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My ethos is espoused in the words of Nelson Mandela: “I have fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the idea of a democratic and free society. If need be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”

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